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    INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS
     
    Frequency: Quarterly
    ISSN Online: 2581-6853
    Language: English

     
     

    Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

    Vol. 3, No. 1 (2020)

     

    Conservation Status of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Nepal: A Review of Current Efforts and Challenges

    Pramod Ghimire

    Abstract: The greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is one of the iconic natural heritage of Nepal’s rich biological diversity, backed by the commitment of the Government of Nepal to conserve this rare animal for now and future generations. It is not only important for conservationists due to its ecological value, but it also holds a universal appeal for ordinary people. Over the decades, the Government of Nepal, supported by national and international conservation partner organizations and the local communities, has significantly contributed to the conservation of this iconic species. Nepal’s rhino population has increased by 45% between the year 2005 and 2015. There are now 645 rhinos in Nepal, marking an increase of 111 rhinos from the 534 recorded in the last census in 2011. These numbers reflect the success of conservation efforts for this species and are a result of improved rhino protection measures, and management of habitat. Though the population of one-horned rhinos has increased significantly over past years in the country, the protection of the rare wildlife species has remained a challenging job. Habitat loss and fragmentation, increasing encroachment of forest areas, climate change, poaching, and increasing human-wildlife conflict are major challenges for protection of this rare species. This paper discusses the current status and distribution of greater one-horned rhinoceros, and potential challenges to conserve this flagship species in Nepal.

    Full Article
    1-14

       
     

    Revision and Compilation of Health Management Plan of Khair (Acacia catechu)

    Rajeev Bhattarai, Puja Sharma, Bishnu Wagle, Angel Adhikari, Suman Acharya

    Abstract: Acacia catechu (Khair) is one of the significant tree species evolved together with Nepali communities. The tree is widely used for medicinal purposes, feeding the livestock, fulfilling the structural needs, and satisfying religious and spiritual needs. Despite the wide use and importance of this tree, the available publications have failed to address the risks the tree is vulnerable to, and develop a management design to overcome these threats. Due to these reasons, the people are growing the Khair trees without any robust health management plan. The abundance and overall importance of this tree in the South Asian region strongly demands an interpretative and comprehensive way of its cultivation. This study is aimed towards bringing together the available information on Khair and finally coming up with an advantageous management plan that can deal with all the hazards the tree is prone to, and help in the production of healthy and of economically high-value timber. This study only deals with two of the several prevalent fungal stresses-Ganoderma lucidum and Fomes badius, causing root rot and heart rot, respectively, putting the tree under risk. The heart rot and root rot are capable of destroying the whole site rendering the trees useless for consumption. The findings from this study can help cultivators know the nature of the diseases and their occurrences and improve the way of cultivating the tree and take prompt actions on the syndromes.

    Full Article
    15-28

       

    Paradox of Rice Seed System in India

    S.K. Mosharaf Hossain, Swati Nayak

    Abstract:Importance of rice in agrarian economy of India is enormous. In order to meet demand of this staple crop for increasing population, productivity enhancement is a key research and development agenda. Improving seed replacement rate is widely held as a critical area to boost rice productivity in the country. This study based on secondary data revealed merely sowing quality seeds may not result in desired level of yield increase unless quality seeds of a good and appropriate variety is sown. Punjab, with its 38% SRR, registers 3.97 ton per ha yield whereas it is just 1.51 ton per ha in Chhattisgarh where SRR is 44%. There are many varieties, quite older than stipulated 10 years, that are largely indented and grown due to lack of substitutes and poor varietal awareness. Because of this slow varietal awareness and replacement, rice yield still stagnates despite seeds are of assured quality. This shows varietal replacement rate is as important as seed replacement rate. The available studies also indicate that current seed system further needs to rationalize variety selection, production and multiplication of breeder seeds for ensuring seed security of farmers and this should be supplemented by measures taken to promote varietal promotion and replacement, quality seed production interventions at farmers’ level, and decentralized seed production system.

    Full Article
    29-35

       

    Monitoring of Nutrient Status at Ratargul Swamp Forest in Sylhet, Bangladesh

    SabihaAkter, Md. Sirajul Islam, Shamim Al Mamun

    Abstract: Nutrient concentration is an important parameter to recognize critical processes of an ecosystem and environmental quality. This paper is based on a study carried out to evaluate the nutrient status in sediments, water and plant leaves from Ratargul swamp forest of Bangladesh during the period from September 2016 to August 2017. The samples were collected from twelve sampling stations of four different canals during dry (September 2016 to April 2017) and wet (May to August, 2017) seasons, respectively. The nutrient contents such as total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP) and total organic carbon (TOC) were analysed in the laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The TN, AP and TOC in sediments were ranged from 2.22 to 5.23, 0.032 to 0.035 and 2.6 to 4.52%, respectively, whereas TN and AP in water were found 5.34 to 22.54% and 0.002 to 0.366%, respectively. Result showed that the TOC in plant leaves was higher in wet season than in dry season, where the TN and AP were higher in dry season than in wet season due to high temperature which increases the rate of photosynthetic activities in the dry season. In both Korochand Hijal plants, the TOC and AP were higher in green leaves than brown leaves, while TN was higher in brown leaves than green ones. Moreover, a statistically significant positive correlation was found among the samples. The study concluded that the nutrient status in sediments, water and leaves were perfectly natural during both the dry and wet season.

    Full Article
    36-49

       

    Seasonal and Tidal Dynamics of Nutrients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in Water at the Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystems of Bangladesh

    Md. Sakib Hasan Nion, Md. Sirajul Islam, Md. EnamulHoq, Mir Md. Mozammal Hoque

    Abstract: The seasonal and tidal variations of physicochemical parameters, nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll a concentration from the water of Passur river and Koromjol canal in the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystems were investigated during March 2018 to February 2019. Samples were collected from five sampling stations during March, August and November where these months were considered as pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The nutrients NH3-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, SO4 and Chlorophyll a concentrations were found 0.001 to 0.09, 3.5 to 50, 0.06 to 5.4, 30 to 272 and 0.18 to 1.75mg/L, respectively, during high tides, and 0.001 to 0.39, 4.2 to 47, 0.1 to 2.75, 20 to 179 and 0.218 to 1.88mg/L, respectively,during low tides. The NO3-N was very high than suitable limit during both tides at monsoon and post-monsoon season. The PO4-P was found moderately high during both tides at all stations. The SO4 was found to be 187.8 and 76.87 mg/L during high tide, and 135.4 and 95.73 mg/Lduring low tides in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, respectively, that were very high than water quality standards. The Passur river and the Koromjol canal were fluctuating seasonally and tidally in some magnitude and their variations can alter the water quality as well as the density and distribution of living organisms.

    Full Article
    50-67